Lichenopora verrucaria (Fabricius, 1780)

Common name(s): 

Phylum Bryozoa (Ectoprocta)
Class Stenolaemata
Order Cyclostomata
Suborder Rectangulata
Family Lichenoporidae
Lichenopora verrucaria (tentatively identified) is the central, whitest bryozoan colony to the right in the aperture of this moon snail.  The colony above it is Cauloramphus spiniferum and the larger colony to the right is tentatively Lichenopora novae-zelandiae.  Shell obtained by beam trawl at 100-120 m depth, San Juan Channel
(Photo by: Dave Cowles, July 2007)
Description:   As with other members of Order Cyclostomata, the zooecia are at least partly calcified and have simple openings, not closed by a constriction nor by an operculumLichenopora verrucaria forms a spreading, more or less disk-shaped, encrusting colony which does not grow by stolons.  The colony is composed of tubes (zooecia) cemented together.  Most of the tubes are scattered rather than in rows radiating from the original growth center.  The ends of the calcified tubes can be clearly seen but do not have sharp points.  The tubes are free of the surrounding matrix for much of their length.

How to Distinguish from Similar Species: Lichenopora novo-zelandiae has tubes many of in regular rows and adhered to one another out to their tips.

Geographical Range:

Depth Range:


Biology/Natural History:



Dichotomous Keys:
  Kozloff 1987, 1996

General References:

Scientific Articles:

Web sites:

General Notes and Observations:  Locations, abundances, unusual behaviors:

Authors and Editors of Page:
Dave Cowles (2007):  Created original page
CSS coding for page developed by Jonathan Cowles (2007)