Lichenopora novae-zelandiae (Busk, 1875)

Common name(s): 

Phylum Bryozoa (Ectoprocta)
Class Stenolaemata
Order Cyclostomata
Suborder Rectangulata
Family Lichenoporidae

Lichenopora novae-zelandiae (tentatively identified) is the largest bryozoan colony to the right in the aperture of this moon snail.  The white colony to its left is tentatively Lichenopora verrucaria and the colony above and to the left is Cauloramphus spiniferum.  Shell obtained by beam trawl at 100-120 m depth, San Juan Channel
(Photo by: Dave Cowles, July 2007)
Description:   As with other members of Order Cyclostomata, the zooecia are at least partly calcified and the zooecia are simple openings, not closed by a constriction nor an operculum.  Lichenopora novae-zelandiae forms an spreading, more or less disk-shaped, encrusting colony which does not form stolons.  The colony is composed of tubes (zooecia) cemented together.  Most of the tubes are in rows radiating from the original growth center.  The ends of the calcified tubes can be clearly seen but do not have sharp points.  The tubes adhere to one another nearly out to their tips, which are free.  

How to Distinguish from Similar Species:   Lichenopora verrucaria has tubes many of which are not in regular rows and not adhered to one another out to their tips.

Geographical Range: 

Depth Range:  


Biology/Natural History:  



Dichotomous Keys:
  Kozloff 1987, 1996

General References:

Scientific Articles:

Web sites:

General Notes and Observations:  Locations, abundances, unusual behaviors:

This closeup view shows the zooids lined up in rows, with just their tips free.

Authors and Editors of Page:
Dave Cowles (2007):  Created original page
CSS coding for page developed by Jonathan Cowles (2007)