How to Distinguish from Similar Species: Crania californica has no pedicle and one valve is cemented to the rock like a jingle shell. Terebratalia transversa is wider than long and the anterior margin (opening) of the shell is undulating. Terebratulina unguicula has small teeth along the anterior margin, the shell is not translucent, and the apex of the shell is completely obliterated by the hole for the pedicle.
Geographical Range: British Columbia to Southern California, Sea of Japan
Depth Range: Occasionally intertidal; subtidal to 486 m
Habitat: Attached to rock
Biology/Natural History: Sexes are separate.
Articulate brachiopods such as this species have interlocking
at the hinge. The teeth prevent the shell valves
from being opened more than a few degrees from each other, and will
at the hinge if an attempt is made to open the shell farther.
brachiopods also have a blind gut with no anus, so any undigested
must be spit back up through the mouth.
Kozloff 1987, 1996
General Notes and
abundances, unusual behaviors:
This view of the ventral side shows how the ventral (larger) valve overlaps the dorsal (smaller) valve near the hinge, and has a hole through which the pedicle projects. The pedicle is a fleshy stalk used to anchor the animal to a rock.
As can be seen in this side view, the larger (ventral) valve
overlaps the smaller valve
where the pedicle
exits. The ventral valve
is on top.
A view inside the shell, such as this view made by shining a
light through the dorsal shell (on bottom), shows the brachial arms
support the lophophore.
Authors and Editors of Page:
Dave Cowles (2007): Created original page
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