Other Valuable Web Resources for Studying Marine Invertebrates
in the Puget Sound and Straits of Juan de Fuca:
Marine Stations on the Pacific Coast of North America
|Rosario Beach Marine
Laboratory: Anacortes, WA, on Fidalgo Island. Operated
by Walla Walla College. Undergraduate and M.S. level marine classes
and research. Parent site for this survey of invertebrates.
||Bodega Marine Laboratory:
In Bodega Bay, CA north of San Francisco. Operated by the University
of California, Davis
|Friday Harbor Laboratories:
In Friday Harbor, WA, on San Juan Island. Operated by the University
of Washington. Marine research by graduate students and faculty,
||Romberg Tiburon Center for Environmental
Studies: San Francisco State University's center for marine
and estuarine research. Located on San Francisco Bay.
|Shannon Point Marine Center:
In Anacortes, WA on Fidalgo Island. Operated by Western Washington
University. Undergraduate marine research and classes.
||Long Marine Laboratory:
Near Santa Cruz in Monterey Bay. Operated by the Institute of Marine
Sciences at UC Santa Cruz.
Field Station: On Blakely Island, WA, one of the San Juan
Islands. Operated by Seattle Pacific University and Seattle University.
The Mission of the Blakely Island Field Station is to support excellence
in education and research in field-based environmental and physical sciences
while supporting the preservation and wise use of Blakely Island ecosystems.
||Moss Landing Marine Laboratories:
In Monterey Bay, CA. Operated by California State University
|Hatfield Marine Science Center:
On the Yaquina Bay estuary In Newport, Oregon. Operated by Oregon
State University. A research and teaching facility.
||Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute:
In Monterey Bay, CA. An independent institution affiliated with the
Monterey Bay Aquarium. Established by David Packard of the Hewlett-Packard
Foundation. Studies on biology and engineering in the deep sea.
of Marine Biology: Charleston, Oregon near Coos Bay.
Operated by the University of Oregon. A research and teaching facility
||Hopkins Marine Laboratory:
In Pacific Grove, CA. Operated by Stanford University
||Marine Science Institute:
Is on the campus of the University of California, Santa Barbara.
|Race Rocks Ecological
Preserve: A marine preserve near Victoria, BC, Canada, on
the grounds of the old Race Rocks light station. Sponsored by the
Lester B. Pearson College, which offers the International Baccalaureate
Wrigley Institute for Environmental Studies: At Two Harbors
on Catalina Island, off Los Angeles, CA. Operated by the University
of Southern California. Studies marine and environmental topics
|Bamfield Marine Sciences Center:
Bamfield, BC, Canada, on Barkley Sound on the protected side of Vancouver
Island. Operated by the Western Canadian Universities Marine Sciences
Society. Includes a Biodiversity
database recording species found near the station.
Kerckhoff Laboratory: In Newport Beach, CA. Operated
by California Institute of Technology. Focus mainly on molecular
and developmental studies of marine species. No formal web page exists
but you can find some info at http://biology.caltech.edu/facilities/
|Western Association of Marine Laboratories
(WAML): An association of the non-profit marine laboratories operated
by federal, state, university, and other non-profit organizations in the
Western United States and Pacific Islands. Part of NAML,
the National Association of Marine Laboratories.
||Scripps Institute of Oceanography:
Located in La Jolla, CA. Part of the University of California, San
Diego. One of the west's eminent marine research laboratories.
Web Sites Focusing on Specific Marine Groups:
|Seaslug forum: A database
of information on nudibranchs, hosted by Bill Rudman of the Australian
Museum. Includes more than 30,000 images and facts on over 1400 species
Recent and Fossil. Contains drawings, photos, and a glossary
of bryozoan terms, links to bryozoan societies and sites, and on-line publications
regarding bryozoans. This site is maintained by Philip Bock of Deakin
|Anthozoa.com: A web site
devoted to Anthozoans--taxonomy, experts in the field, species lists, other
literature. Operated by Vreni Haussermann, from Germany. No
specific information for the Pacific Northwest, but has taxonomic information,
||Seashells of British
Columbia: Has photos and descriptions of British Columbia seashells.
By Peter Egerton, a shell collector, web designer, and photographer.
of the world: Anemones, corals, cerianthids, and their allies
||ascidians.com: A web site
based in the Netherlands and maintained by Arjan Gittenberger. Contains
photos and descriptions of a large number of ascidian species worldwide.
Also includes links to other ascidian websites and to an ascidian newsletter.
|Crustacea.net: The goal of
this web site is to provide taxonomic information, keys, and morphological
descriptions of the crustaceans of the world. Managed by an international
coalition of taxonomists.
||Ascidian Home Page
for United States: Home page for Ascidian news, a newsletter
by Charles and Gretchen Lambert on ascidians. Based in Seattle, WA
and Fullerton, CA
|World of Copepods:
This list is maintained by the C.B. Wilson Copepod Library at the Smithsonian
Museum, Washington, DC. It includes a bibliography of all known copepod
and branchiura literature, a world list of copepod and branchiura researchers,
and a list of specimens held by the Smithsonian Museum. The taxonomic
list is now part of the World Register of Marine Species.
||Claudia Mills' home
page: Claudia Mills is a specialist in gelatinous zooplankton,
based at University of Washington's Friday Harbor Marine Labs. Her
web site contains a lot of information on gelatinous species, especially
jellyfish. The site includes a list of errata
and Mills' 1998 book on Gelatinous Marine Zooplankton.
Database: Alpheids, especially genus Alpheus, are snapping
shrimp. We have no members of genus Alpheus here in the Pacific
Northwest but we do have another genus in the family, Betaeus.
This database from the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute and maintained
by Arthur Anker has a general description of family Alpheidae and covers
many species in genus Alpheus.
||The Cephalopod Page:
Created and maintained by James Wood of the Bermuda Biological Station
for Research. Profiles a number of cephalopod species, has a searchable
database on cephalopods, lists meetings on cephalopod biology, has photos
and movies of cephalopods.
Literature: This web site, part of the tree of life project,
is an assemblage of more than 7000 references on the systematics of decapods.
An increasing number, currently over 500, are available directly from the
site as pdf files. The site is maintained by Dean Pentcheff, Regina
Wetzer, and Joel Martin of the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County,
CA. For the full site try this link: Decapoda.nhm.org
||CephBase: This database-driven
web site covers all living cephalopods. Created by James B. Wood
and Catriona L. Day of Dalhousie University, it is housed at the University
of Texas. CephBase provides taxonomic data, distribution, images,
videos, predator and prey data, size, references and scientific contact
information for all living species of cephalopods (octopus, squid, cuttlefish
and nautilus) in an easy to access, user-friendly manner.
|Peracarida Taxa and
Literature: A database of references on some of the lesser-known
Arthropods in Infraorder Peracarida (specifically, the crustacean orders
Tanaidacea, Cumacea, and Mysidacea, and Lophogastrida). Maintained
by Gary Anderson at the University of Southern Mississippi
of the North American Pacific Coast: This web site is maintained
by Roger Clark
|Guide to the Thalassinideans
of the South Atlantic Bight (USA): This is a guide to mud shrimp
(such as Upogebia)
and their relatives which live off the SE coast of the US. The entire
document is available as a pdf at this link. Includes keys and diagrams.
Peer-reviewed and published by NOAA.
||Pacific Coast Gelatinous
Zooplankton: A web site put together by Dave Wrobel (see Wrobel
and Mills book).
|Amphipod Newsletter: Published
by the Tromso museum, Norway.
||Pacific Northwest Shell Club:
The web pages of this shell-collecting group contain photos of many local
bivalve and gastropod shells and records of where the group has found them.
Amphipoda Database: Part of the MarineSpecies.org
||Glossary of Crustacean
Terms: Compiled by Joel Martin, Crustacean curator, Los Angeles
of the Pacific Northwest: This site by Neil McDaniel has great
photos and brief descriptions of about 30 seastars found off British Columbia.
Many of the species are found in the Salish Sea, while others are more
||World List of Marine,
Freshwater, and Terrestrial Isopod Crustaceans: Maintained by
Brian Kensley, Marilyn Schotte, and Steve Schilling at the Smithsonian
Museum, Washington, DC.
|Jellieszone.com: This web
site on gelatinous organisms (especially jellyfish) is maintained by Dave
Wrobel. Dave has spent time as curator of jellies at Monterey
Bay Aquarium and New England
Aquarium and is coauthor of the book Pacific
Coast Pelagic Invertebrates.
This web site focuses on taxonomy and descriptions of nemerteans, apparently
coordinated by the International Congress of Nemertean Biology. The
nemertean descriptions are very useful.
|ATOL (Assembling the Tree of Life)
Decapoda: This site from the Los Angeles Museum of Natural History
contains thousands of article references, many available as pdf files,
on the systematics of decapod crustaceans. The site also contains
a list of decapod genera and a glossary of decapod biology.
web page. By Erik Thuesen, the author of the Chaetognatha section
of Carlton, 2007
(Light and Smith manual, Intertidal Invertebrates of Central California).
|Gastropods.com: Hardy's Guide
to Marine Gastropods: In 2018 contains a worldwide list of about 60,000
gastropod and scaphopod species, with photos of about 23,000. Based on
several collections, especially the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia.
Maintained by Eddie Hardy, who is apparently a serious shell collector.
Miscellaneous Web Sites:
|ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic
Information System): From the USDA. Contains taxonomic information
on a large number of species found in the US, plus links to gene databases,
PubMed articles, etc. A great source for information.
Columbia Marine Life: Photos of species from various marine groups.
This web site is maintained by elasmodiver.
This site, produced by systematist Roderick Page at the University of Glasgow,
compiles a profile of what is known about species it is queried about "on
the fly". Information includes taxonomic information from ITIS, molecular
data, online images, and recent articles and abstracts from Google Scholar.
A great resource!
Laboratory: Sidney, BC. A consulting laboratory specializing
especially on marine sponges. For over 30 years Khoyatan Marine Laboratory
(KML) has been providing specialized consulting services on a wide range
of marine topics. These include: Environmental Impact Assessment,
including oil spills. Fishery Feasibility Studies, Species Identification,
Assessments of rare, threatened, and endangered species
|Species 2000: This extensive
database is also supported by ITIS. It is an attempt to catalogue
all species (animals, plants, fungi, and microbes). The database
is based at the University of Reading, UK. Besides its own list of
species the site has links to many other "federated" databases. As
of May 2005, does not yet catalog invertebrates but it does include fish.
Columbia Creature Page: Contains photos and brief descriptions
of many marine species in British Columbia. Many of the species listed
can be found only by diving.
Dictionary of Invertebrate Zoology: A detailed, downloadable
and searchable dictionary in pdf format. Primary editor is Armand
R. Maggenti from University of California, Davis.
This commercial web site of stock photos contains thousands of photos of
marine species, along with many other types of photos. They may be
viewed for free but charge a fee of $9.00 or more for use. Another
affiliated site, Can
Stock Photos, offers many other photos, videos, and maps for a low
price or free.
|Tree of Life: This web-based
project is an attempt to catalog the relationships among all living groups.
Contains contributions from biologists from around the world, and currently
is composed of more than 3000 web pages.
This site, by diver and photographer Gary McCarthy, contains many photos
of underwater species, mainly from the warmer waters of southern California,
Hawaii, and the Caribbean.
|Universal Biological Indexer and Organizer:
(http://www.ubio.org) A digitized, online, searchable index of all described
animal genera from Linnaeus down to the year 2004. Includes searches
of the complete version of the journal Nomenclator Zoologicus, published
for the Zoological Society of London. This online version was developed
by David P. Remsen, Catherine Norton, and David J. Patterson, Biol
Bull 2006 (210) 18-24
Publication Database of the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County,
CA: A searchable archive of systematics references for species
and groups found along the Pacific coast.
|IDigBio.org: The center
for hundreds of thousands of digitized records of thousands of species
in museums across the US, including many marine species. Funded by
the National Science Foundation. Photographs of many of the species
Another commercial web site that includes many good images of marine species
such as sea slugs.
|A Snail's Odyssey:
This educational web site by Thomas Carefoot of the University of British
Columbia contains descriptions of the basic biology, photographs, and synopses
of important scientific studies of a multitude of intertidal invertebrates
found on the west coast of North America. The purpose is to provide
summaries of what is known about the invertebrates in order to stimulate
further undergraduate and graduate studies. The site's rich content
currently includes thousands of photos and summaries of over 4000 scientific
papers. The organizing theme is a journey of a littorinid snail from
subtidal water up to the upper intertidal.
||International Code of
Zoological Nomenclature: Specifies the rules for naming species
such as these marine invertebrates.
|OBIS: The Ocean Biogeographic
Information System: A cooperative venture of the Alfred P. Sloan
Foundation, U.S. Office of Naval Resarch, National Science Foundation,
and National Oceans Partnership Program, Australia's CSIRO, Rutgers University,
and the Kansas Geological Survey. Provides biogeographic information
from around the world. Can be searched by taxon or region.
Part of the 10-year Census of Marine Life
||Lophelia.org: This web
site focuses on deep coldwater reefs from several regions of the world,
including the Aleutian Islands here in the NE Pacific. Contains maps,
photos, and descriptions of deep reefs.
Library: The British H.M.S. Challenger expedition from 1873-1876
was one of the greatest oceanographic expeditions of all time and set off
a surge of oceanographic studies around the world. It resulted in
80 volumes and over 30,000 pages of reports. A huge number of new
marine species were discovered and described. This link to the Library
of 19th Century Science, which is operated by volunteers, provides access
to all the Challenger volumes. One may view individual pages or purchase
volumes on CD or DVD.
|| Biodiversity Heritage
Library: Archives thousands of older or government-sponsored
biological books and articles and makes them available online (often as
pdf files). Examples include the entire 'Proceedings of the United
States National Museum'. Also serves as the foundational literature
component of the Encyclopedia of Life
database, based at the University of G?ttingen in Germany, specializes
in digitized versions of early species descriptions. It contains
links to more than 7000 digitized papers from 1500 on, including works
by Carolus Linnaeus. Nearly all the works relative to species descriptions
are complete up to 1770. Some references from later years are already
included and the database continues to be updated. Searches can be made
by original taxonomic name, current taxonomic name, group, author, etc.
||NISBase.org: This web site,
based at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center in Edgewater, Maryland,
gives you access to a variety of databases which list invasive (exotic)
species. Just enter your criteria and the geographic area of
interest on the front page and the site will retrieve records from a variety
of relevant databases.
a world register of marine species. This web site is a collaborative
project by a worldwide group of marine taxonomists. It contains searchable
databases of species names for a number of marine groups including
sponges, several crustacean groups, pycnogonids, phoronids, and ophiuroids.
Besides species lists it includes some depth and distribution data.
||Marine Species Identification
Portal: This European site is an initiative of ETI BioInformatics
under MARBEF (an EC funded network of Excellence) and KeyToNature (a project
in the EC e-contentPlus Programme). In 2008 it incluced keys to 9875 species
and 5545 higher taxa, with descriptions and illustrations, synonyms and
vernacular names. It was contributed to by a wide network of scientists
and is continuing to grow.
Library: This web site is an attempt by a consortium of major
libraries such as the American Museum of Natural History, The Field Museum
(Chicago), Harvard University botany libraries, Marine Biological Laboratory
at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Smithsonian Institution Libraries,
etc. to make classical literature on biological species available online.
Documents include many classic books and journals, as well as a number
of recent works (example: Kensley
and Schotte, 1989. Guide to the Marine Isopod Crustaceans of the
Caribbean, published by the Smithsonian Institution Press. Contains
photos and descriptions of over 225 species, covering all known Caribbean
species except Epicaridea). Most are available as pdf files.
||WoRMS: World Register
of Marine Species: This site is an attempt by a number of universities
and government agencies to make a standard register of taxonomic names
and classification of marine species. Countries involved include
many european countries, as well as South Africa and New Zealand as well
as some participation by US scientists. The site is maintained by
taxonomists. Current "world lists" include groups such as Poriphera,
Pycnogonids, several groups of Crustaceans, and Ophiuroids. The site
has some more comprehensive regional lists as well, but these focus mainly
on the Atlantic and Indian Oceans.
Contributions to Zoology: This entire line of zoological volumes
from the Smithsonian, many of which deal with marine species, is available
Contributions to the Marine Sciences: This entire line (initiated
in the 1970's) is available online, including a volume on Pacific Northwest
|Bulletin of the Southern California
Academy of Sciences: This journal frequently carries articles
about marine species along the Pacific coast of North America. Articles
since 2000 can be found online.
||Encyclopedia of Life: A joint
project by a variety of scientists and organizations such as the Smithsonian,
Woods Hole Biological Laboratory, Harvard University, the Field Museum
in Chicago, and the Biodiversity heritage library to make a database with
a page for each known species on earth, with many links to different types
of information, taxonomy, ecology, etc. Information is present on
many marine groups. This web site is a content partner to the Encyclopedia
|Morphbank: A web site
hosted by Florida State University which contains photos of thousands of
species, including many marine species. Includes links to ITIS.
The photos are available for "fair use".
||Census of Marine Life: This
international effort is sponsored by many organizations and government
agencies (spearheaded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation). Based in
Washington, D.C., the 80+ nation organization has a 10-year initiative
to census marine species with emphasis on presence, distribution, and abundance
for each species. The first comprehensive census is to be released
|Global Names Index:
This web site collects scientific names from a large number of other sites,
including barcode of life, NCBI, GBIF, ITIS, etc. Its main sponsors
seem to be GBIF and EOL (Encyclopedia of Life). Any individual may
add names to the index. Its intent is to become a list of all scientific
names, whether correctly used or not. Inclusion in the index does
not verify that the name is correct, but the index may provide links to
other resources that can help clarify the matter.
||GBIF: Global Biodiversity
Information Facility: This site is an international, government-funded
collaboration for making biodiversity and bioinformatics information freely
available online. Its data portal allows one to search for information
by species, by country, or by database.
|Listentothedeep.com: This web
site links to near real-time listening to a variety of deep-sea hydrophones
distributed around the world. The site is run by the LIDO consortium
(Listening to the Deep Ocean Environment).
Estuarine and Marine Exotic Specis Information System: This database,
created and maintained by the Marine Invasions Research Laboratory at the
Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, provides comprehensive information
on approximately 500 introduced marine and estuarine species of invertebrates
and algae. The database can be searched by region or by taxonomic
category. Currently the strongest emphasis is on species on the US
The Smithsonian Museum collection of nearly 19 million specimens.
Includes many photos, a bibliography, and a list of taxa for species near
Antarctica to 30 degrees S.
||SeaDoc Society: Located
on Orcas Island and sponsored by the UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine,
this web site focuses on many aspects of the ecosystem health of the San
Juan Islands and Salish Sea. It includes information on various Salish
Sea species, accounts of ongoing research, maps of the Salish Sea floor,
etc. A great site to visit for more information on the Salish Sea.
|ZooBank: This site by the International
Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN)
is a repository for data on recent changes in zoological names. It
is the official registry of zoological nomenclature and provides a means
to register new nomenclatural acts, published works, and authors.
||Northwest Straits Foundation
works in the region near the Rosario Beach Marine Lab to promote scientific,
education, and restoration projects and programs of the Northwest Straits
Marine Conservation Initiative.
This web page, maintained by the Laboratory for Advanced Spatial Analysis
at the University of British Columbia, functions as an electronic atlas
for the wildlife of British Columbia, Canada, including marine invertebrates.
Each species listed has an accompanying atlas map showing where it has
been found in BC, plus references to other online databases where more
information can be found.
||Encyclopedia of Puget Sound:
This website is published by the University of Washington's Puget
Sound Institute. Its purpose is to be a central source for integrated
scientific information about Puget Sound and the Salish Sea watershed for
scientists, academics, and policy makers.
Explorer: This web site catalogs estimated conservation status
and level of endangerment for thousands of species in North America.
It makes estimates of status on many species that cannot be listed on government
web sites because no formal status can be assigned to a species on a government
web site unless some very specific studies (usually underfunded) are made
||iBOL International Barcode of Life:
A project with the goal of recording DNA sequences from all the living
species possible, in order to facilitate identification. A central
database for iBOL is called BOLDSystems
and Scientists for Conservation (ASC): This organization caters
to outdoor extreme enthusiasts who want to go to exotic places to collect
environmental data for scientists. The organization pairs the scientists
with the adventurers.
Seto Marine Biological Laboratory (P-SMBL): Seto Marine
Biological Laboratory is associated with Kyoto University, Japan.
It has been publishing in Marine Biology since 1949. Its journal
is the 'International Journal for Marine Biology'.
Web Sites Dealing with Introduced Species
along the Pacific Coast of America, especially the Salish Sea area:
The National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System.
This national database has a list of about 500 introduced marine and estuarine
invertebrate and algae species in the United States. Specific species
reports are available only for tunicates, crabs, shrimp, and crayfish.
||National Invasive Species
Council: Established by Executive order in 1999, involves 13
Federal departments and coordinates plans for dealing with invasive species.
Invasives page at the National
Invasive Species Council Information Center contains a list and descriptions
of some of the most important aquatic invasive species in the United States.
|Aquatic Invasive Species page for
the Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife: Covers
plants and animals, freshwater and marine. Has a special section
on invasive tunicates, along with descriptions of invasive tunicates in
Invasive Species: This web site covers more than just New York.
It has incorporated the material from the former National Clearinghouse
for Aquatic Nuisance Species which was formerly maintained by Sea Grant
(but was closed because of budget cuts)
|Aquatic Nuisance Species
Project: Covers the entire Columbia River Basin. Lists
freshwater and marine invasive species that may be found along the course
of the Columbia River, including algae, Chinese mitten crabs, green crabs,
Atlantic Salmon, Spartina eelgrass, etc. Maintained by Bonneville
Power Administration with input from US Fish and Wildlife, NOAA, and the
Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission.
||US Geological Survey NAS (Non-indiginous
Aquatic Species) site: Includes species lists for Bryozoans,
Cnidarians, Crustaceans, Mollusks, and Vertebrates. No longer being
updated because of budget cuts.
|Smithsonian Environmental Research
Center, Marine Invasions Research Lab: Based at the Smithsonian
Institution. Gary M. Ruiz, Senior Scientist.
||Canadian Aquatic Invasive Species
Network (CAISN), a part of NSERC (Natural Sciences and Engineering
Research Council), Canada.
Introductions into British Columbia Marine Waters, Major Trends:
Part of E-Fauna BC, The electronic atlas of fauna of British Columbia.
Contains a list of known marine introductions in British Columbia.
Invasive Species Page by Fisheries and Oceans Canada: Contains
photos and links to information and booklets on a number of marine introduced
species found in Canada.
|Marine Invasive Species Lab:
Lab of Evgeny Pakhomov, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC.
Contains information on projects the lab is doing and on BC invasive marine
||Oregon Invasive Species
Hotline: To report suspected invasive species discovered in Oregon.
Has databases on plants and animals, mostly terrestrial and freshwater.
|Invasive Species Compendium:
a site maintained by CABI.org, a not-for-profit international consortium.
Some of the marine species pages seem not well developed yet, but can contain
some information on species invasive internationally.
Invasive Species Database: 100 of the World's Most Invasive Alien
Species. Includes terrestrial, aquatic, and marine species. An
Species Page of the Western Ecology division of the United States Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA): Links to a large pdf atlas listing marine
and estuarine ononindiginous species in the western US, along with environmental
and habitat information for each species. Also links to a Microsoft
Access file, PICES, which was used to generate the atlas.
||The Exotics Guide: Non-Native
Marine Species of the North American Pacific Coast: This web
site, by Andrew Cohen and produced by the Center for Research on Aquatic
Bioinvasions of the San Francisco Estuary Institute, contains photos and
descriptions of many exotic species. San Francisco Bay is one of
the main centers for aquatic invasive species on the west coast, so this
site should have a firsthand look at many of them. The site also
attempts to catalog species found elsewhere along the Pacific coast.
|IUCN Red List: This
is a list of the endangered status of species around the world by the International
Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). For each species the
IUCN assessment is given, along with an explanation of why it is endangered
(including because of competition from introduced species)
Crab web pages from University of Washington College of the Environment,
for Washington State Sea Grant: Green Crabs threaten to become established
in Washington State waters. This web site details for citizens how
to identify them and whom to contact if they are found.
Return to Main Inverts Key Page:
Salish Sea Invertebrates web site provided courtesy of Walla