This solitary tunicate
has an opaque tunic which is covered with spinelike
The projections are numerous but do not obscure sight of the rest of
tunic. Each projection has an irregular circle of 4-8
The animal does not attach to the substrate by a distinct
Height up to about 4 cm.
echinata (Linnaeus, 1767)
echinata, Cynthia echinata, Halocynthia echinata, Microcosmus
on the underside of a boulder and surrounded by sponge.
approximately 2 cm. Found at minus tide level on Sares Head.
|(Photo by: Dave
How to Distinguish
Similar Species: Boltenia
villosa attaches by a stalk. Halocynthia
igaboja has projections which nearly obscure the tunic and
projection has several rings of secondary spinelets.
(I was able to find no information about this species).
villosa for a related species with more
Kozloff 1987, 1996
General Notes and
abundances, unusual behaviors:
Authors and Editors of Page:
Dave Cowles (2007): Created original page
CSS coding for page developed by Jonathan Cowles (2007)